With many feeling that BIM development is stagnating, AEC Magazine asked Bricsys’ BricsCAD BIM product manager, Tiemen Strobbe, what disruptive technologies he thought will drive the industry’s toolsets
很多人认为 BIM 的发展停滞不前，AEC 杂志问 Bricsys 的 bricadbim 产品经理 Tiemen Strobbe，他认为什么颠覆性技术将推动这个行业的工具集
The construction industry — which encompasses real estate, infrastructure and industrial structures — is one of the largest industries in the global economy. It has a favourable growth outlook driven by global population growth, ongoing urbanisation and increased spending on infrastructure.
- However, despite being one of the largest industries in the world, the construction industry has some unfavourable market characteristics: 然而，建造业虽然是世界上最大的行业之一，但也有一些不利的市场特征:
- A project-based building approach and bespoke projects with unique features have a limited degree of repeatability and standardisation. 基于项目的构建方法和具有独特特性的定制项目的可重复性和标准化程度有限
A highly fragmented ecosystem, in which construction relies on coordination among specialised groups (including owners, contractors, architects, and engineers), resulting in limited economies of scale.
These market characteristics have caused the construction industry to historically underperform, typified by lagging productivity growth, slow innovation and digitalisation, and low customer satisfaction, as detailed in McKinsey’s 2020 report: The next normal in construction.
The promise of BIM
Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a process for using a shared digital representation of a built asset to ease design, construction, and operation processes to form a reliable basis for decisions.
Although the first BIM applications have existed since the 1990s, BIM adoption rates worldwide have reached just 60 to 70 percent in 35 years. Nevertheless, the promise of BIM for improving performance across the construction industry is high. We believe that the following emerging disruptions and future industry dynamics are expected to accelerate the adoption of BIM and the digitalisation of the industry: a shift towards off-site manufacturing, technological progress in Artificial Intelligence and increased collaboration possibilities.
尽管第一个 BIM 应用程序自20世纪90年代以来就已经存在，但是 BIM 在全世界的应用率在35年里只达到了60% 到70% 。尽管如此，BIM 在改善整个建筑业的表现方面仍有很高的前景。我们相信，以下新出现的干扰和未来的行业动态将加速 BIM 的采用和行业的数字化: 向场外制造的转变，人工智能的技术进步和增加合作的可能性。
Design for manufacturing: from projects to products
Modular construction has the potential to offer a more standardised, consolidated, and integrated construction process. Modular construction involves producing standardised components of a structure in an off-site factory, and then assembling them on-site. This approach can speed up construction by as much as 50%, whilst cutting costs by 20% in the right environment.
模块化结构有可能提供一个更加标准化、统一和集成的结构过程。模块化结构包括在异地工厂生产结构的标准化部件，然后在现场组装。这种方法可以加快多达50% 的建设，同时削减20% 的成本，在适当的环境。
Whilst the concept of modular construction has been around for many decades, it is currently experiencing a new wave of attention due to changing customer perceptions, and advances in digital design, planning, and production technologies. In several countries, including the United Kingdom, the United States and Japan, there is a renewed surge of modular projects, and it is expected that modular construction will increase in popularity in more countries soon.
As McKinsey wrote in its 2019 report: Modular construction: From projects to products, “Modular has had its moments before, but there is reason to believe its momentum is sustainable this time.”
正如麦肯锡(McKinsey)在其2019年的报告《模块化结构: 从项目到产品》(Modular construction: From projects to products)中所写的那样，“模块化以前也有过辉煌时刻，但我们有理由相信，这一次它的势头是可持续的。”
Artificial Intelligence has the potential to improve the BIM design process through task automation, recognition of design intent and auto-completion of repetitive tasks, to name a few examples.
例如，人工智能可以通过任务自动化、设计意图识别和重复任务的自动完成来改进 BIM 的设计过程。
This trend will have a significant impact on how BIM tools are used during the design phase. Design decisions will need to be made more upfront, and designers will need to align their projects to the manufacturing process whilst focusing on the efficiency of manufacturing and assembly.
这一趋势将对 BIM 工具在设计阶段的应用产生重大影响。设计决策需要更加前瞻性，设计师需要将他们的项目与制造过程结合起来，同时关注制造和组装的效率。
This design approach is often referred to as Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DfMA). BIM tools that allow designers to bridge the gap between conceptual BIM design and manufacturing and assembly can significantly reduce the time and cost of the design period. Through automation and the development of libraries of modules for the manufacturing process as assemblies, the design process can be accelerated to an even larger extent.
这种设计方法通常被称为面向制造和装配的设计(DfMA)。BIM 工具可以让设计师在 BIM 概念设计、制造和装配之间架起一座桥梁，从而大大缩短设计周期的时间和成本。通过自动化和开发用于装配制造过程的模块库，可以在更大程度上加快设计过程。
Technology growth potential (2018-19). Source: Business Advantage CAD Trends 2018-2019 report 技术增长潜力(2018-19年)。资料来源: 商业优势 CAD 趋势2018-2019年报告
Automation of manual work through AI
The interest in Artificial Intelligence (AI) for computer-aided design can be traced back to the 1970s. The architect and technologist Nicholas Negroponte envisioned a dynamic between human and machine that “would bring about ideas unrealisable by either conversant alone.”
More than 50 years later, the advent of big data, increased computing power, and cloud computing have made Artificial Intelligence (and its subdomain of Machine Learning) the BIM trend with the highest growth potential, according to the Business Advantage CAD Trends 2018-2019 report.
根据《2018-2019年商业优势 CAD 趋势》的报告，50多年后，大数据的出现、计算能力的增强以及云计算使得人工智能(及其子领域机器学习)成为 BIM 趋势中增长潜力最大的领域。
Artificial Intelligence has the potential to improve the BIM design process through task automation, recognition of design intent and auto-completion of repetitive tasks, to name a few examples. It is important that the AI tools act only as an assistant to the designer, and the designer can still reverse, overrule, or simply neglect any design suggestion as they wish. Some of the most interesting applications of AI in BIM include:
例如，人工智能可以通过任务自动化、设计意图识别和重复任务的自动完成来改进 BIM 的设计过程。重要的是，人工智能工具只是作为设计师的辅助工具，而设计师仍然可以随心所欲地逆转、推翻或者简单地忽略任何设计建议。在 BIM 中，人工智能的一些最有趣的应用包括:
- Automatic classification of BIM elements BIM 元素的自动分类
- Auto-completion of connection details 自动完成连接细节
- Maintaining data integrity of models and drawings 维护模型和图纸的数据完整性
- Automatic annotation of construction drawings (including tags, dimensions, etc.) 施工图的自动标注(包括标签、尺寸等)
- Model and drawing clean-up 模型和图纸清理
- Assistance in planning 协助规划
Collaboration in the cloud
A shift from desktop to cloud-based services has taken place in many industries. However, cloud-based services for CAD and BIM are not yet widely adopted in the AEC industry. Nevertheless, there are strong future growth indicators for cloud-based BIM services, especially in addition to desktop BIM tools. The Covid-19 pandemic has caused a shift in attitudes to cloud technology in the construction industry, and working with models in the cloud while working from home has had a positive effect on general work performance.
许多行业已经从桌面服务转向基于云的服务。然而，基于云的 CAD 和 BIM 服务在 AEC 行业中还没有被广泛采用。尽管如此，基于云计算的 BIM 服务，尤其是桌面 BIM 工具，在未来仍有强劲的增长指标。2019冠状病毒疾病的流行病已经导致了建筑业对云技术态度的转变，在家工作时使用云模型对总体工作绩效产生了积极的影响。
The most important aspects of working with BIM in the cloud are design collaboration, design review, and construction collaboration. According to the Business Advantage CAD Trends 2018-2019 report over half of the CAD professionals use the cloud for exchanging or collaboration with files and models, and half of them use the cloud for storing and reviewing files and models.
在云中使用 BIM 最重要的方面是设计协作、设计评审和构建协作。根据 Business Advantage CAD Trends 2018-2019的报告，超过一半的 CAD 专业人员使用云计算交换文件或与文件和模型进行协作，其中一半使用云计算存储和审查文件和模型。
It is expected that BIM tools for collaboration can reduce the time and cost of the design period: These tools:
预计 BIM 协作工具可以减少设计周期的时间和成本:
- Enable the possibility to trace back design changes 允许追溯设计更改的可能性
- Avoid conflicts and assign ownership 避免冲突并分配所有权
- Allow prompt and seamless communication during the design process 在设计过程中允许迅速和无缝沟通
- Coordinate work across teams 跨团队协调工作
- Support non-linear design flows, keeping track of multiple design options 支持非线性设计流程，跟踪多个设计选项
- Facilitate last minute design changes 促进最后一分钟的设计变化
A good example of collaboration workflow can be found in the software development industry. In software development, many developers are cooperating on source code whilst using version- control systems for tracking changes in files and coordinating work among programmers.
It is expected that such technologies will gradually find their way in BIM tools, if they are built for non-technical users, built for project workflows, and built for design change chaos.
如果这些技术是为非技术用户、项目工作流程和设计变更混乱而构建的，那么预计这些技术将逐渐在 BIM 工具中找到自己的路。